Hong Kong Economy
AS PROTESTS grip Hong Kong and worries mount about how China might respond, one of the most unsettling questions for the city’s residents is whether its fate matters much to the rest of the country. Hong Kong has long served as the bridge between China and the world, conveying trade and investment flows both ways. That role has diminished in recent years as China has opened its borders and plugged itself directly into the global economy. Hong Kong's leaders warn that the current unrest will only result in Chinese businesses bypassing it even more. Judging by size, they have a point: Hong Kong is clearly less important than in the past. Its GDP has shrunk from 16% of China’s in 1997, the year it was returned to Chinese control, to 3% today. That has led many inside China and abroad to conclude that Hong Kong is fading towards economic irrelevance. Is it?
Not so fast. The focus on size alone is too simplistic. With China’s development over the past two decades, growth has spread around the country—no one city can dominate GDP when there are now nearly 200 cities with populations of more than 1m people and rapidly rising incomes. But in the financial sphere Hong Kong has remained indispensable to China. And in several dimensions its position has actually been consolidated, not eroded, in recent years. Hong Kong has proved to be more reliable than the mainland as a source of equity financing. Since 2012, Chinese companies have raised $43 billion in initial public offerings in the Hong Kong market, versus just $25 billion on mainland exchanges, according to Dealogic. More than anywhere else in the world, Hong Kong has also provided Chinese companies with access to global capital markets for bond and loan financing. What’s more, Hong Kong is the key hub for investment in and out of China. It accounted for two-thirds of foreign direct investment into China last year, up from 30% in 2005.
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